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    Software name: appdown
    Software type: Microsoft Framwork

    size: 527MB

    Lanuage:Englist

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      A period of calm followed, but not for long, for again and again new attacks were made.It must not be supposed that the influx of Asiatic religions into Europe was attended by any loss of faith in the old gods of Greece and Italy, or by any neglect of their worship. The researches of Friedl?nder have proved the absolute erroneousness of such an idea, widely entertained as it has been. Innumerable monuments are in existence testifying to the continued authority of the Olympian divinities, and particularly of Jupiter, over the whole extent of the Roman empire. Ample endowments were still devoted to the maintenance of their service; their temples still smoked with sacrifices; their litanies were still repeated as a duty which it would have been scandalous to neglect; in all hours of public and private danger their help was still implored, and acknowledged by the dedication of votive offerings when the danger was overcome; it was still believed, as in the days of Homer, that they occasionally manifested themselves on earth, signalising their presence by works of superhuman power.339 Nor was there anything anomalous in this peaceable co-existence of the old with the new faiths. So far back as we can trace the records both of Greek and Roman polytheism, they are remarkable for their receptive and assimilative capacity. Apollo and Artemis were imported into Greece from Lycia, Heracles and Aphrodite from Phoenicia, Dionysus and Ares probably from220 Thrace. Roman religion under its oldest form included both a Latin or Sabine and an Etruscan element; at a subsequent period it became Hellenised without losing anything of its grave and decorous character. In Greece, the elastic system of divine relationships was stretched a little further so as to make room for the new comers. The same system, when introduced into Roman mythology, served to connect and enliven what previously had been so many rigid and isolated abstractions. With both, the supreme religious conception continued to be what it had been with their Aryan ancestors, that of a heavenly Father Jove; and the fashionable deities of the empire were received into the pantheon of Homer and Hesiod as recovered or adopted children of the same Olympian sire. The danger to Hellenistic polytheism was not from another form of the same type, but from a faith which should refuse to amalgamate with it on any terms; and in the environment created by Roman imperialism with its unifying and cosmopolitan character, such a faith, if it existed anywhere, could not fail in the long-run to supersede and extinguish its more tolerant rivals. But the immediate effect produced by giving free play to mens religious instincts was not the concentration of their belief on a single object, or on new to the exclusion of old objects, but an extraordinary abundance and complexity of supernaturalism under all its forms. This general tendency, again, admits of being decomposed into two distinct currents, according as it was determined by the introduction of alien superstitions from without, or by the development of native and popular superstition from within. But, in each case, the retrogressive movement resulted from the same political revolution. At once critical and conservative, the city-aristocracies prevented the perennial germs of religious life from multiplying to any serious extent within the limits of their jurisdiction, no less vigilantly than they prohibited the importation of its completed products from abroad. We have now to study the221 behaviour of these germs when the restraint to which they had formerly been subjected was lightened or withdrawn.


      Prout concluded his evidence at length, every word of which told dead against the one man seated there. Not half a dozen people in the room would have acquitted him on the criminal charge.Machinery subjected to destructive wear, and to be operated at a distance from machine shopslocomotive engines for exampleif not constructed with standard dimensions, may, by the detention due to repairing, cause a loss and inconvenience equal to their value; if a shaft wheel bearing, or even a fitted screw bolt is broken, time must be allowed to make the parts new; and in order to fit them, the whole machine, or such of its details as have connection with the broken parts, must be taken to a shop in order to fit by trial.


      The steam cylinder which moves the hammers is set in the earth at some depth below the plane upon which they move, and even when the heaviest work is done there is no perceptible jar when one is standing near the hammers, as there always is with those which have a vertical movement and are single acting.

      Let none suppose that the foregoing remarks are meant either to express any sympathy with a cowardly shrinking from death, or to intimate that the doctrine of evolution tends to reverse the noblest lessons of ancient wisdom. In holding that death is rightly regarded as an evil, and that it must always continue to be so regarded, we do not imply that it is necessarily the greatest of all evils for any given individual. It is not, as Spinoza has shown, by arguing away our emotions, but by confronting them with still stronger emotions, that they are, if necessary, to be overcome.182 The social feelings may be trusted to conquer the instinct of self-preservation, and, by a self-acting adjustment, to work with more intensity in proportion to the strength of its resistance. The dearer95 our lives are to us, the greater will be the glory of renouncing them, that others may be better secured in the enjoyment of theirs. Aristotle is much truer, as well as more human, than Epicurus, when he observes that the more completely virtuous and happy a man is, the more will he be grieved to die; for to such a one life is worth most, and he will consciously be renouncing the greatest goods, and that is grievous. Nevertheless, he remains brave, nay, even the braver for that very reason, because he prefers the glory of a warrior to every other good.183 Nor need we fear that a race of cowards will be the fittest to survive, when we remember what an advantage that state has in the struggle for existence, the lives of whose citizens are most unrestrictedly held at its disposal. But their devotion would be without merit and without meaning, were not the loss of existence felt to be an evil, and its prolongation cherished as a gain.

      We are still anxious to know whether our perception of a real world comes to us by an exercise of thought, or by a simple impression of sensewhether it is the universal that gives the individual reality, or the individual that shapes itself, by some process not explained, into a universalwhether bodily movements are the causal antecedents of mental functions, or mind rather the reality which gives truth to bodywhether the highest life is a life of thought or a life of actionwhether intellectual also involves moral progresswhether the state is a mere combination for the preservation of goods and property, or a moral organism developing the idea of right. And about these and such like questions Aristotle has still much to tell us.... His theory of a creative reason, fragmentary as that theory is left, is the answer to all materialistic theories of the universe. To Aristotle, as to a subtle Scottish preacher [Principal Caird] the real pre-supposition of all knowledge, or the thought which is the prius of all things, is not the individuals consciousness of himself as individual, but a thought or self-consciousness which is beyond all individual selves, which is the unity of all individual selves and their objects, of all thinkers and all objects of all thought.167


      The term application has been selected as a proper one to distinguish machines that expend and apply power, from those that are employed in generating or transmitting power. Machines of application employed in manufacturing, and which expend their action on material, are directed to certain operations which are usually spoken of as processes, such as cutting, compressing, grinding, separating, and disintegrating.

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      That "being a Netherlander" had become my stock-argument, and, as a matter of fact, it made me feel calmer. Quietly I made myself free of the surrounding crowd, in order to proceed on my way; but then they got hold of my arms and gently tried to induce me to go with them, so I had to speak more firmly to make them understand that they could not prevail on me. When at last I was able to resume my march, they looked back frequently, shaking their heads, and in their anxiety for me, their fellow-creature, they seemed to forget for a moment their own hardly bearable sorrows.

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      Cores are employed mainly for what may be termed the displacement of metal in moulds. There is no clear line of distinction between cores and moulds, as founding is now conducted; cores may be of green sand, and made to surround the exterior of a piece, as well as to make perforations or to form recesses within it. The term 'core,' in its technical sense, means dried moulds, as distinguished from green sand. Wheels or other castings are said to be cast in cores when the moulds are made in pieces and dried. Supporting and venting cores, and their expansion, are conditions to which especial attention [95] is called. When a core is surrounded with hot metal, it gives off, because of moisture and the burning of the 'wash,' a large amount of gas which must have free means of escape. In the arrangement of cores, therefore, attention must be had to some means of venting, which is generally attained by allowing them to project through the sides of the mould and communicate with the air outside.

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